• Marshall Kana Samuel Soil Science & Water Programme, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute, 95400, Roban, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Stephanie Lorna Evers School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom



Carbon emission, mitigation, peat compaction, physicochemical properties, oil palm plantation


The peat compaction method is currently adopted by Malaysia oil palm companies to mitigate the uprising environmental issues. This method is claimed to be effective in minimising the risk of fire through enhancement of soil moisture due to capillary effect. In this review, the authors discussed on the peatland function in global perspective, the important of peat soil compaction, emergence of potential peat compaction in oil palm plantation establishment, peat compaction processes and the effects of compaction on physicochemical properties and carbon emission via peat surface and fire. Authors also found that compaction terminology on tropical peatland should be defined wisely, as it closely depends on the initial water table level and the peat quality. Thus, the retrieved information could serve as basic platform to further probe into the highlighted aspects and may as well function as a guide for management of these sensitive ecosystems, particularly in light of carbon loss mitigation.

Author Biography

Stephanie Lorna Evers, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom




Yule, C. M. and Gomez, L. N. 2009. Leaf Litter Decomposition in a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 17: 231-41.

Swails, E., Jaye, D., Verchot, L., Hergoualc’h, K., Schirrmann, M., Borchard, N. et al. 2017. Will CO2 Emissions from Drained Tropical Peatlands Decline Over Time? Links Between Soil Organic Matter Quality, Nutrients, and C Mineralization Rates. Ecosystems. 1-18.

Purmalis, O., Klavins, M., Maris Klavins, C. and Chem, H. 2013. Comparative Study of Peat Humic Acids by using UV. 1st Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference, AHC, Azores, Portugal. 24-6.

Waldron, S., Vihermaa, L., Evers, S., Garnett, M., Newton, J., Padfield, R. et al. 2019. Old DOC Can Fuel the Efflux of Old Carbon Dioxide from Disturbed Tropical Peat Drainage System, But Site Recovery Can Occur. Scientific Reports. 1-12.

Carlson, K. M., Goodman, L. K. and May-Tobin, C. C. 2015. Modeling Relationships between Water Table Depth and Peat Soil Carbon Loss in Southeast Asian Plantations. Environmental Research Letters. 10: 074006.

Melling, L. 2016. Tropical Peatland Ecosystems. Osaki M, and Tsuji N, editors. Trop. Peatl. Ecosyst. Springer Japan, Tokyo.

Frank, S., Tiemeyer, B., Gelbrecht, J. and Freibauer, A. 2014. High Soil Solution Carbon and Nitrogen Concentrations in a Drained Atlantic Bog are Reduced to Natural Levels by 10 Years of Rewetting. Biogeosciences. 11: 2309-24.

Nahrawi, H., Husni, M. H. A., Othman, R. and Bah, A. 2011. Decomposition of Leaf and Fine Root Residues of Three Different Crop Species in Tropical Peat Under Controlled Condition. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science. 15: 63-74.

Lal, R. 2021. Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change. Geoderma. 123: 1-22.

Page, S. E., Rieley, J. O. and Banks, C. J. 2011. Global and Regional Importance of the Tropical Peatland Carbon Pool. Global Change Biology. 17: 798-818.

Pacheco, P., Gnych, S., Dermawan, A., Komarudin, H. and Okarda, B. 2017. The Palm Oil Global Value Chain Implications for Economic Growth and Social and Environmental Sustainability.

Surahman, A., Soni, P. and Shivakoti, G. P. 2018. Reducing CO2 Emissions and Supporting Food Security in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, with Improved Peatland Management. Land Use Policy. 72: 325-32.

Wakhid, N., Hirano, T., Okimoto, Y., Nurzakiah, S. and Nursyamsi, D. 2017. Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Rubber Plantation on Tropical Peat. Science of the Total Environment. 581-582: 857-65.

Austin, K. G., Mosnier, A., Pirker, J., Mccallum, I., Fritz, S. and Kasibhatla, P. S. 2017. Land Use Policy Shifting Patterns of Oil Palm Driven Deforestation in Indonesia and Implications for Zero-deforestation Commitments. Land Use Policy. 69: 41-8.

Evers, S., Yule, C. M., Padfield, R., O’Reilly, P. and Varkkey, H. 2017. Keep Wetlands Wet : The Myth of Sustainable Development of Tropical Peatlands – Implications for Policies and Management. Global Change Biology. 23: 534-49.

Zulkefli, M., Nuriati, L. K. C. L. and Ismail, A. B. 2010. Soil CO2 Flux from Tropical Peatland under Different Land Clearing Techniques. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science. 38: 131-7.

Comeau, L.-P., Hergoualc’h, K., Smith, J. U. and Verchot, L. 2013. Conversion of Intact Peat Swamp Forest to Oil Palm Plantation. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Couwenberg, J. and Hooijer, A. 2013. Towards Robust Subsidence-based Soil Carbon Emission Factors for Peat Soils in South-East Asia, with Special Reference to Oil Palm Plantations. Mires and Peat. 12: 1-13.

Murdiyarso, D., Hergoualc’h, K. and Verchot, L. V. 2010. Opportunities for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Tropical Peatlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107: 19655-60.

Page, S., Hooijer, A., Page, S., Canadell, J. G., Silvius, M., Kwadijk, J. et al. 2010. Current and Future CO2 Emissions from Drained Peatlands in Southeast Asia Current and Future CO2 Emissions from Drained Peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences. 1505-14.

IPCC. 2013. 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines For National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands Methodological Guidance on Organic and Wet Soils across IPCC Land-use Categories.

Jaenicke, J., Wösten, H., Budiman, A. and Siegert, F. 2010. Planning Hydrological Restoration of Peatlands in Indonesia to Mitigate Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 15: 223-39.

Harpenslager, S. F., Elzen, E. Van Den, Kox, M. A. R., Smolders, A. J. P., Ettwig, K. F. and Lamers, L. P. M. 2015. Rewetting Former Agricultural Peatlands : Topsoil Removal as a Prerequisite to Avoid Strong Nutrient and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Ecological Engineering. 84: 159-68.

Busman, N. A., Maie, N., Ishak, C. F., Sulaiman, M. F. and Melling, L. 2018. Effect of Different Soil Bulk Density and Temperature on Soil CO2 Emission from Tropical Peatland. 21st World Congress of Soil Science. 94300.

Melling, L. and Tang, A. 2018. Soil moisture management of tropical peatland. Workshop on Haze and Biomass Burning in Asia-A Systems Perspective to Reveal Opporturnities with Benefits for Long-Term Transformations. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Bandung, Indonesia, Indonesia.

Othman, H., Farawahida, M., Darus, M. and Mohammed, A.T. 2009. Experiences in Peat Development for Oil Palm Planting in the MPOB Research Station at Sessang, Sarawak. Oil Palm Bulletin. 58: 1-13.

Mutert, E., Fairhurst, T. H. and von Uexküll, H. R. 1999. Agronomic Management of Oil Palms on Deep Peat. Better Crops International. 13: 22-7.$FILE/Better%20Crops%20International%201999-1%20p22.pdf.

Othman, H., Mohammed, A. T., Harun, M. H., Darus, F. M., Mos, H. and Mos, M. 2010. Best management practises for oil palm planting on peat: optimum groundwater table. MPOB Information Series. Kuala Lumpur. 528: 1-7.

Melling, L. and Henson, I. E. 2011. Greenhouse Gas Exchange of Tropical Peatlands - A Review. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 23: 1087-95.

Yahya, Z., Husin, A., Talib, J., Othman, J., Darus, S. Z., Ahmed, O. H. et al. 2011. Pores Reconfiguration in Compacted Bernam Series Soil. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 8: 212–6.

Beylich, A., Oberholzer, H.-R. R., Schrader, S., Höper, H. and Wilke, B.-M. M. 2010. Evaluation of Soil Compaction Effects on Soil Biota and Soil Biological Processes in Soils. Soil and Tillage Research. 109: 133-43.

Breland, T. A. and Hansen, S. 1996. Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Biomass as Affected by Soil Compaction. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 28: 655-63.

Silva, S. R., Silva, I. R. da, Barros, N. F. de and Sá Mendonça, E. de. 2011. Effect of Compaction on Microbial Activity with Different Mineralogy. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Do Solo. 35: 1141-9.

Agele, S. O., Ewulo, B. S. and Oyewusi, I. K. 2005. Effects of Some Soil Management Systems on Soil Physical Properties, Microbial Biomass and Nutrient Distribution under Rainfed Maize Production in a Humid Rainforest Alfisol. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 72: 121-34.

Jelsma, I., Woittiez, L. S., Ollivier, J. and Dharmawan, A. H. 2019. Do Wealthy Farmers Implement Better Agricultural Practices? An Assessment of Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices among Different Types of Independent Oil Palm Smallholders in Riau, Indonesia. Agricultural Systems. 170: 63-76.

Wijedasa, L. S., Jauhiainen, J., Könönen, M., Lampela, M., Vasander, H., Leblanc, M. C. et al. 2017. Denial of Long-term Issues with Agriculture on Tropical Peatlands will have Devastating Consequences. Glob. Chang. Biol. 977-82.

Cambi, M., Certini, G., Neri, F. and Marchi, E. 2015. Forest Ecology and Management the impact of Heavy Traffic on Forest Soils : A Review. Forest Ecology and Management. 338: 124-38.

Rezanezhad, F., Price, J. S., Quinton, W. L., Lennartz, B., Milojevic, T. and Cappellen, P. Van. 2016. Structure of Peat Soils and Implications for Water Storage, Flow and Solute Transport : A Review Update for Geochemists. Chemical Geology. 429: 75-84.

Duraisamy, Y., Huat, B. B. K. and Muniandy, R. 2009. Compressibility Behavior of Fibrous Peat Reinforced with Cement Columns. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. 27: 619-29.

Forsyth, T. 2014. Public Concerns about Transboundary Haze : A Comparison of Indonesia, Global Environmental Change. Elsevier Ltd. 25: 76-86.

ASEAN Secretariat. 2003. Guidelines for the Implementation of the ASEAN Policy on Zero Burning. ASEAN.

Selangor State Malaysia. 2014. Integrated Management Plan NSPSF 2014-2023 vol. 2.

van Asselen, S., Stouthamer, E. and van Asch, T. W. J. 2009. Effects of Peat Compaction on Delta Evolution: A Review on Processes, Responses, Measuring and Modeling. Earth-Science Reviews. 92: 35-51.

Wösten, J. H. M., Ismail, A. B. and van Wijk, A. L. M. 1997. Peat Subsidence and Its Practical Implications: A Case Study in Malaysia. Geoderma. 78: 25-36.

Hooijer, A., Page, S., Jauhiainen, J., Lee, W. A., Lu, X. X., Idris, A. et al. 2012. Subsidence and Carbon Loss in Drained Tropical Peatlands. Biogeosciences. 9: 1053-71.

Ritzema, H., Limin, S., Kusin, K., Jauhiainen, J. and Wösten, H. 2014. Canal Blocking Strategies for Hydrological Restoration of Degraded Tropical Peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Catena. 114: 11-20.

Díaz-Zorita, M. and Grosso, G. A. 2000. Effect of Soil Texture, Organic Carbon and Water Retention on the Compactability of Soils from the Argentinean Pampas. Soil and Tillage Research. 54: 121-6.

Novara, A., Armstrong, A., Gristina, L., Semple, K. T. and Quinton, J. N. 2012. Effects of Soil Compaction, Rain Exposure and Their Interaction on Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 37: 994-9.

Katimon, A. and Melling, L. 2007. Moisture Retention Curve of Tropical Sapric and Hemic Peat. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering. 19: 84-90.

Kimura, S. D., Melling, L., Goh, K. J. and Joo, K. 2012. Geoderma Influence of Soil Aggregate Size on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Uptake Rate from Tropical Peat Soil in Forest and Different Oil Palm Development Years. Geoderma. 185-186: 1-5.

Melling, L., Katimon, A., Joo, G. K., Uyo, L. J. and Sayok, A. 2013. Hydraulic Conductivity and Moisture Characteristics of Tropical Peatland - Preliminary Investigation. 1-15.

Anuar, A. R., Goh, K. J., Heoh, T. B. and Ahmed, O. H. 2008. Spatial Variability of Soil Inorganic N in a Manure Oil Palm Plantation in Sabah, Malaysia. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 5: 1239-46.

The Borneo Post. 2016. Prevent Peat Fires Via Soil Management. The Borneo Post, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Huat, B. B. K. K., Kazemian, S., Prasad, A. and Barghchi, M. 2011. State of an Art Review of Peat : General Perspective. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 6: 1988-96.

Firdaus, M. S., Gandaseca, S. and Ahmed, O. H. 2011. Effect of Drainage and Land Clearing on Selected Peat Soil Physical Properties of Secondary Peat Swamp Forest. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 6: 5462-6.

Kuncoro, P. H., Koga, K., Satta, N. and Muto, Y. 2014. A Study on the Effect of Compaction on Transport Properties of Soil Gas and Water. II: Soil Pore Structure Indices. Soil and Tillage Research. 143: 180-7.

Melling, L., Soo, C., Tan, Y. U. N., Goh, K. J., and Hatano, R. 2013b. Soil Microbial and Root Respiration from Three Ecosystems in Tropical Peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia 25, 44-57.

Ahmed, O. H., Ng, C.’, Ywih, H., Muhamad, N., Majid, A. and Jalloh, M. B. 2009. Effects of Converting Secondary Forest on Tropical Peat Soil to Oil Palm Plantation on Carbon Storage. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 4: 123-30.

Ishikura, K., Hirano, T., Okimoto, Y., Hirata, R., Kiew, F., Melling, L. et al. 2018. Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions due to Oxidative Peat Decomposition in an Oil Palm Plantation on Tropical Peat. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 254: 202-12.

Ishikura, K., Yamada, H., Toma, Y., Takakai, F., Morishita, T., Darung, U. et al. 2017. Effect of Groundwater Level Fluctuation on Soil Respiration Rate of Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 63: 1-13.

Marwanto, S., Sabiham, S. and Funakawa, S. 2019. Importance of CO2 Production in Subsoil Layers of Drained Tropical Peatland under Mature Oil Palm Plantation. Soil and Tillage Research. 186: 206-13.

Torbert, H. A. and Wood, C. W. 1992. Effects of Soil Compaction and Water-Filled Pore Space on Soil Microbial Activity and N Losses. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 23: 1321-31.

Alakukku, L. 2006. Soil Compaction. Combatting Soil Degradation. 217-21.

Horn, R., Taubner, H., Wuttke, M. and Baumgartl, T. 1994. Soil Physical Properties Related to Soil Structure. Soil and Tillage Research. 30: 187-216.

Kuzyakov, Y. 2010. Soil Biology & Biochemistry Priming Effects : Interactions between Living and Dead Organic Matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 42: 1363-71.

Ball, B. C., Scott, A. and Parker, J. P. 1999. Adsorption Kinetics of CO2, O2, N2, and CH4 in Cation-Exchanged Clinoptilolite. Soil and Tillage Research. 53: 1313-9.

Hamza, M. A. and Anderson, W. K. 2005. Soil Compaction in Cropping Systems. Soil and Tillage Research. 82: 121-45.

Kennedy, G. W. and Price, J. S. 2005. A Conceptual Model of Volume-change Controls on the Hydrology of Cutover Peats. Journal of Hydrology. 302: 13-27.

Smith, T. E. L., Evers, S., Yule, C. M. and Gan, J. Y. 2018. In Situ Tropical Peatland Fire Emission Factors and Their Variability, as Determined by Field Measurements in Peninsula Malaysia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 32: 18-31.

Ball, B. C., Campbell, D. J. and Hunter, E. A. 2000. Soil Compactibility in Relation to Physical and Organic Properties at 156 Sites in UK. Soil & Tillage Research. 57: 83-91.

Nimmo, J. R. 2004. Porosity and Pore Size Distribution. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment. 295-303.

Beckwith, C. W., Baird, A. J. and Heathwaite, A. L. 2003. Anisotropy and Depth-related Heterogeneity of Hydraulic Conductivity in a Bog Peat. II: Modelling the Effects on Groundwater Flow. Hydrological Processes. 17: 103-13.

Samuel, M. K., Choo, L. N. L. K. and Sadi, T. 2014. Morphological Characteristics and Multi- Directional CO2 Emission from Tropical Peat.

Alakukku, L. 1996. Persistence of Soil Compaction due to High Axle Load Traffic. Short-Term Effects on the Properties of Clay and Organic Soils. Soil & Tillage Research. 37: 1-222.

Alakukku, L. 1996. Persistence of Soil Compaction due to High Axle Load Traffic. II. Long-term Effects on the Properties of Fine-textured and Organic Soils. Soil & Tillage Research. 37: 223-38.

Singh, J., Salaria, A. and Kaul, A. 2015. Impact of Soil Compaction on Soil Physical Properties and Root Growth: A Review. International Journal of Food. 5: 23-32.

Ekwue, E. I. and Harrilal, A. 2010. Effect of Soil Type, Peat, Slope, Compaction Effort and Their Interactions on Infiltration, Runoff and Raindrop Erosion of Some Trinidadian Soils. Biosystems Engineering. 105: 112-8.

Tan, X. and Chang, S. X. 2007. Soil Compaction and Forest Litter Amendment Affect Carbon and Net Nitrogen Mineralization in a Boreal Forest Soil. Soil and Tillage Research. 93: 77-86.

Caron, J., Price, J. S. and Rochefort, L. 2015. Physical Properties of Organic Soil: Adapting Mineral Soil Concepts to Horticultural Growing Media and Histosol Characterization. Vadose Zone Journal. 14.

Ikeda, K., Toyota, K. and Kimura, M. 1997. Effects of Soil Compaction on the Microbial Populations of Melon and Maize Rhizoplane. Plant and Soil. 189: 91-6.

Linn, D. M. and Doran, J. W. 1984. Effect of Water-Filled Pore Space on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide Production in Tilled and Nontilled Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 48: 1267-72.

Shestak, C. J. and Busse, M. D. 2005. Compaction Alters Physical but Not Biological Indices of Soil Health. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 69: 236.

Bader, C., Müller, M., Schulin, R. and Leifeld, J. 2018. Peat Decomposability in Managed Organic Soils in Relation to Land Use, Organic Matter Composition and Temperature. Biogeosciences. 15: 703-19.

Moore, T. R. and Dalva, M. 1997. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Exchange Potentials of Peat Soils in Aerobic and Anaerobic Laboratory Incubations. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 29: 1157-64.

Öquist, M. and Sundh, I. 1998. Effects of a Transient Oxic Period on Mineralization of Organic Matter to CH4 and CO2 in Anoxic Peat Incubations. Geomicrobiology Journal. 15: 325–33.

Jauhiainen, J., Takahashi, H., Heikkinen, J. E. P., Martikainen, P. J. and Vasander, H. 2005. Carbon Fluxes from a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Floor. Global Change Biology. 11: 1788-97.

Jauhiainen, J., Limin, S., Silvennoinen, H. and Vasander, H. 2008. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes in Drained Tropical Peat Before and After Hydrological Restoration. Ecology. 89: 3503-14.

Miao, G., Noormets, A., Domec, J.-C.C., Trettin, C. C., McNulty, S. G., Sun, G. et al. 2013. The Effect of Water Table Fluctuation on Soil Respiration in a Lower Coastal Plain Forested Wetland in the Southeastern U.S. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 118: 1748-62.

Hergoualc, K., Daniel, T. H., Louis, M. and Verchot, V. 2017. Total and Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in a Swamp Forest and Oil Palm Plantations on Peat in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biogeochemistry. 203-20.

Li, W., Zhuang, Q., Wu, W., Wen, X., Han, J. and Liao, Y. 2019. Effects of Ridge–furrow Mulching on Soil CO2 Efflux in a Maize Field in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 264: 200-12.

Jauhiainen, J., Hooijer, A. and Page, S. E. 2012. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from an Acacia Plantation on Peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia. Biogeosciences. 9: 617-30.

Mäkiranta, P., Minkkinen, K., Hytönen, J. and Laine, J. 2008. Factors Causing Temporal and Spatial Variation in Heterotrophic and Rhizospheric Components of Soil Respiration in Afforested Organic Soil Croplands in Finland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40: 1592-600.

Varner, R. K. 2003. Experimentally Induced Root Mortality Increased Nitrous Oxide Emission from Tropical Forest Soils. Geophysical Research Letters. 30: 1144.

Ngao, J., Longdoz, B., Granier, A., and Epron, D. 2007. Estimation of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Components of Soil Respiration by Trenching is Sensitive to Corrections for Root Decomposition and Changes in Soil Water Content. Plant Soil. 301: 99-110.

Lestariningsih, I. D., Widianto and Hairiah, K. 2013. Assessing Soil Compaction with Two Different Methods of Soil Bulk Density Measurement in Oil Palm Plantation. Soil Procedia Environmental Sciences. 17: 172-8.

Luskin, M. S. and Potts, M. D. 2011. Microclimate and Habitat Heterogeneity through the Oil Palm Lifecycle Oil Palm. Basic and Applied Ecology. 12: 540-51.

Page, S. E., Siegert, F., Rieley, J. O., Boehm, H. V, Jaya, A. and Limin, S. 2002. The Amount of Carbon Released from Peat and Forest Fires in Indonesia during 1997-1999. 61-5.

Filkov, A., Leroy-Cancellieri, V., Cancellieri, D., Gladky, D. and Simeoni, A. 2015. Modeling Peat-Fire Hazards: From Drying to Smoldering. Coal Peat Fires A Glob. Perspect.

Wilson, D., Dixon, S. D., Artz, R. R. E., Smith, T. E. L., Evans, C. D., Owen, H. J. F. et al. 2015. Derivation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Peatlands Managed for Extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Biogeosciences. 12: 5291-308.

Huang, X., Restuccia, F., Gramola, M. and Rein, G. 2016. Experimental Study of the Formation and Collapse of an Overhang in the Lateral Spread of Smouldering Peat Fires. Combustion and Flame. 168: 393-402.

Leroy-Cancellieri, V., Cancellieri, D., Leoni, E., Simeoni, A. and Filkov, A.I. 2014. Energetic Potential and Kinetic Behavior of Peats. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 117: 1497-508.

Usup, A., Hashimoto, Y., Takahashi, H. and Hayasaka, H. 2004. Combustion and Thermal Characteristics of Peat Fire in Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics. 14: 1-19.

Christian, T. J., Kleiss, B., Yokelson, R. J., Holzinger, R., Crutzen, P. J., Hao, W. M. et al. 2004. Comprehensive Laboratory Measurements of Biomass-burning Emissions: 2. First Intercomparison of Open-path FTIR, PTR-MS, and GC-MS/FID/ECD. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 109: 1-12.

Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Gilbert, A. A., Daugherty, K., Cochrane, M. A., Ryan, K. C. et al. 2018. Chemical Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted by Peat Fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18: 2585-600.

Paton-Walsh, C., Smith, T. E. L. L., Young, E. L., Griffith, D. W. T. T., Guérette, A. and Guérette, É. 2014. New Emission Factors for Australian Vegetation Fires Measured using Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy – Part 1 : Methods and Australian Temperate Forest Fires. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 14: 11313-33.

Setyawati, W. and Suwarsono. 2018. Carbon Emission from Peat Fire in 2015. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 166.

Huang, X. and Rein, G. 2016. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass In Smouldering Combustion Across Scales : The Roles of Heterogeneous Kinetics, Oxygen and Transport Phenomena. Bioresource Technology. 207: 409-21.

Putra, E. I., Cochrane, M. A., Vetrita, Y., Graham, L. and Saharjo, B. H. 2018. Determining Critical Groundwater Level to Prevent Degraded Peatland from Severe Peat Fire. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 149.

Perdana, L. R., Ratnasari, N. G., Ramadhan, M. L., Palamba, P., Nasruddin and Nugroho, Y. S. 2018. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Characteristics of Dry Peat. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 105.

Winarna, Murtilaksono, K., Sabiham, S., Sutandi, A. and Sutarta, E. S. 2016. Hydrophobicity of Tropical Peat Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation in North Sumatra. Journal of Agronomy, Asian Network for Scientific Information. 15: 114–21.

Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T. et al. 2011. Emission Factors for Open and Domestic Biomass Burning for Use in Atmospheric Models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 11: 4039-72.




How to Cite




Science and Engineering